ASSIGNMENT REFERENCE MATERIAL (2017-18) AOM-01 Office Organisation and Management FREE Solved Assignment
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ASSIGNMENT REFERENCE MATERIAL (2017-18) AOM-01 Office Organisation and Management FREE Solved Assignment
Q1. What are the purposes for which written external communication is conducted? What are the advantages of written communication?
Ans:- Communication through words may be in writing or oral. Written communication entails transmission of message in black and white. It mainly consists of diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. Reports, policies, rules, orders, instructions, agreements, etc have to be conveyed in written form for proper functioning of the organization. Written communication guarantees that everyone concerned has the same information. It provides a long-lasting record of communication for future. Written instructions are essential when the action called for is crucial and complex. To be effectual, written communication should be understandable, brief, truthful and comprehensive.
There are various famous of written communication. The most common and widely used form is the individually written letter. Other forms of written communication are notices, circulars, reports, memoranda, etc. It can also take the form of stereotyped ‘form’ letters and other formalized documents like orders, invoices, and bills, etc. Broadly speaking the term ‘correspondence’ includes all forms of written communication including letters. But in a narrow sense, it commonly refers to individually written letters only.
Notices: A ‘notice’ is a written communication used for conveying some information of general interest to a particular class of external individual, viz. customers, investors, etc. or the general public. Its purpose is to make the persons of a particular class aware of some important information, briefly and clearly. A notice is usually written in the form of an impersonal communication containing the message or information in clear, definite and unambiguous terms. There is no scope for personal solicitation* or appeal in a formal notice. It is issued in general terms, without addressing any individual by name.
Circulars: A circular is a written communication conveying some message to a large number of persons, like customers, suppliers, investors or the general public. Its purpose is to circulate the same message to a large number of persons. The object of writing a business circular is not merely to convey some message or information, but also to arouse the interest of the recipient and invoke action or to promote business and goodwill.
Reports: A report is a written communication in which, according to the nature and purpose of the report, the writer presents a collection of facts or a number of alternative propositions, states his conclusions and (if called upon to do so) submits his recommendations for action. The writer of a report may be an individual or a group of individuals (committee or sub-committee or board). It may be written at regular intervals as part of routine office activity or on special occasions at the instruction of a superior executive or body. Some statutory bodies like companies, cooperative societies, etc. are required to prepare reports for submission according to provisions of law.
The main advantages and disadvantages of written communication are as follows:
Merits of written communication:-
(a) It ensures transmission of information in uniform manner.
(b) It provides a permanent record of communication for future reference.
(c) It is an idealistic way of conveying long messages.
Q2. Discuss the various types of calculating machines used to modern organizations for the computation work. What are their common advantages?
Ans. Calculating Machines: A calculating machine can perform a variety of functions: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, percentages, square and cube roots, etc. There are five types of calculating machines:
- The Printing calculator provides printed details of the calculations made and the result of each calculation.
- The Key-driven calculator is the full keyboard non-listing machine and can be manually or electrically operated.
- The Rotary calculator is primarily used for division and multiplication. Any composite number is added, multiplied, subtracted or divided by one rotation of a handle – clockwise or anti-clockwise action.
Calculating machines contribute greatly to efficiency by eliminating routine and repetitive arithmetical calculations. They perform all basic arithmetical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Calculations involving integers or decimal fractions of various units of measurement can be made accurately with these machines. Calculating machines can compute percentages, squares, square roots, logarithms, etc. They are particularly suited to calcalate rates and amounts of interest, discount, commission, etc. Most standard calculating machines are nonlisting, have a full keyboard and show the results on a dial. The sizes of machines range from the small pocket calculator to the big desk calculator.
The calculating machines may be used for the following purposes:.
- Interest calculation
- Discount and commission calculation
- Inventory checking
- Freight bill preparation
- Costing of products
- Payroll calculations
Q3. Briefly comment on the following:
- a) Poor working conditions cause mental strain.
Ans:- Employees generally prefer to work in a comfortable work environment. They are more productive when the working conditions are pleasant and satisfactory. Over the years, enlightened managers have realised the importance of providing congenial working conditions to the employees. Office work is mostly mental work which is repetitive and monotonous. It requires greater concentration of mind, free from distractions. Poor working conditions cause mental strain. As a result, efficiency of work and the quality of performance suffer, and employee’s morale tends to be low. It is, therefore, the duty of an office manager to provide an environment which is comfortable and conducive to efficiency of work.
The office must have a good lighting system. The requisites of good lighting arrangement are: well-diffused illumination and working surfaces without glare or sharp shadows. As far as possible, maximum use of natural light must be made. Where this is not feasible, artificial lighting in the form of lamps or fluorescent tubes could be used. Ventilation means the supply of fresh air in required quantities at the right temperature. This could be achieved by having an adequate number of windows, fans, coolers and air-conditioners in the office.
- b) There is no standard size for the executive desk or table.
Ans:- Executive furniture is made in accordance with the taste of the executive concerned and is made basically for appearance. The main purpose is to impress visitors with the prestige and importance of the person using it. Executive furniture is generally of superior quality and is used in more important private offices in the organization. There is no standard size of the executive desk or table, because this depends on the status of the executive and the size of the room.
- c) Decentralized filing is relatively more economical than centralized filing.
Ans:- No, Decentralized filing is relatively more economical than centralized filing.
Centralized Filing: Under this system, all the records pertaining to different departments in the organization are filed at a central location, which may be called Filing or Record Section under a chief record keeper. This system implies that individual departments in the organization need not undertake their own filing work independently. Necessary filing equipments and personnel are located at the central place, which is easily accessible to all other departments.
Improves efficiency, reduces the operational cost and provides better services. Eliminates the need for preparing records of office copies and also eliminates the duplication of filing equipments like folders, cabinets, etc. Cost is also saved. Space become economical as there is an optimum utilization of office space.
Decentralized filing: Under the system, filing is not done centrally at one place. Files relating to different sections or departments are maintained departmentally. Every department installs its own filing system, maintains separate equipment and allocates staff to look after the filing work. This system is also called departmental filing.
Required papers are readily available. The chance of misfiling and misplacement are minimized as department staff has knowledge of everything. The appointment of separate filing staff is not necessary which reduces the office expense. For the work relating to filing, indexing, record keeping, retention and disposal, junior assistants get the required training. Functional efficiency is ensured as filing work is done at departmental level. Confidential matters can be kept secret. It is most suitable for large organizations which have more branches and they cannot get records quickly.
- d) Given a set of possible decisions, a decision-maker will select one on the basis of the information at hand.
Ans:- In the decision framework, there could be decision-making under certainty where we assume existence of perfect information regarding outcomes. In decision-making under uncertainty, we assume only a knowledge of possible outcomes but no information as to probabilities. In decision theory, the value of information is the value of the change in decision behaviour caused because of availability of information less the cost of obtaining the information. Given a set of possible decisions, a decision-maker will select one on the basis of the information at hand.
Q4. Write short notes on the following:
- a) Signals
Ans. A signal can be a small or large sized plastic tab or adhesive material to write on a brief description of records to which it is attached at the exposed edge of records. Some signals have space to write a descriptive material. Its purpose is served by its shape, colour or position along the edge of the sheet or card or folder. The location of these cards or folders, etc. becomes easier and quicker by attaching signals. They can also be used to show the overdues recoverable or stoppage of credit facility to the customer’s account. The basic objectives of signals are quick and easy reference of the already filed records, draw immediate attention to the recorded facts, classify the records and aids and assist visible card indexing.
- b) Self-Indexing
Ans:- Self-indexing in the ETF industry is hardly a new phenomenon. In fact, many ETF providers such as Wisdom Tree and Index IQ have successfully built entire business models that rely solely on in-house index creation.
But up until recently self-indexing had been pretty much confined to niche strategies, and that’s a state of affairs that will no longer prevail if iShares, the world’s biggest ETF company, jumps into the self-indexing game.
- c) Office manual
Ans. Office Manual: Office manual is a guide book containing information regarding policy, organization, systems and procedures, methods, regulations, etc. of employment. Office manual helps both the employees and the management in various ways. They provide definite instruction regarding duties and responsibilities of the employees. It relieves the management of the necessity of repeating the same instructions to the employees again and again. It helps the management to fix responsibility for non-performance of the duties by the employees.
- d) Flow chart
Ans. The efficacy of a system or routine is much enhanced when there is a smooth and continuous flow of work ‘Flow’ refers to the way in which work in an office moves along from point to point and from one operation to another, the quantity or volume of work going through, the rate at which it moves along and the smoothness of its passage. In controlling, output, the first and most important consideration is to handle work so that it shall flow steadily without any interruption; that is, velocities at all points should be equal and uninterrupted.
Q5. Distinguish between the following
- a) Strip Index and visible card Index
Ans:- Visible Card Index: Under this system, the cards are arranged flat in a shallow tray or metal frame. Each card is attached to a metal hinge and overlaps the one before it, so that name, address and other particulars are visible without touching other cards. The frames or trays are attached vertically to the metal stands or they can be put horizontally into cabinets. The details of data can be written or typed on the front or back of the cards for reference.
The advantages are:
(a) It occupies less space.
(b) The reference is much faster. Cards are easily located.
(c) Any information can be added without disturbing the arrangement.
Visible card index also suffers from certain drawbacks:
(a) It requires costly equipment.
(b) Designing and operating the system needs special training.
(c) Making entries on cards takes more time.
- b) Guides and signals
Ans:- Guides and Out Guides:- Guides cards or special sheets serve as indicators of the place of a set of records. The tabs of the guide cards are marked alphabetically of geographically or numerically. Out-maker or out guide cards ar also used to record the whereabouts of papers issued for use. If the whole file is sent for use by a particular officer, the out-guide card or sheet is placed in the particular section of the drawer. Folders are kept behind guides in accordance with the marks on the tabs. Thus if a guide card bears the number 20 and the next card bears the number 30, it means that each guide card serves as a guide to ten folders placed behind it.
- i) The principal utility of the guides or out-guides lies in facilitating easier and quicker location of the papers or records required from time to time.
- ii) They save time and efforts required for identifying and locating the papers needed.
iii) They aid and assist the indexing system.
Signal:- A signal can be a small or large sized plastic tab or adhesive material to write on a brief description of records to which it is attached at the exposed edge of records. Some signals have space to write a descriptive material. Its purpose is served by its shape, colour or position along the edge of the sheet or card or folder. The location of these cards or folders, etc. becomes easier and quicker by attaching signals. They can also be used to show the overdues recoverable or stoppage of credit facility to the customer’s account. The basic objectives of signals are quick and easy reference of the already filed records, draw immediate attention to the recorded facts, classify the records and aids and assist visible card indexing.
- c) Copying and duplicating machines
Ans:- Copying:- The word copying denotes reproduction. The mechanical device which facilitates reproduction are called copying machines. Copies can be obtained either by manual operation or mechanical operation. The mechanical devices like typewriter, rotary machine and photostat copying machines are used to save labour and time during the course of reproduction. Among all copying machines typewriter was the oldest type of machine operated manually or electrically. Rotary machine is an automatic copying machine. This is also known as roller copier. The use of photostat copier give exact copy of the original. This is also known as Xerox copier.
Duplicating machines:- Duplicating is different from copying. It is a process of getting a number of copies of a master impression- In the process of copying copies are obtained directly from the original without creating master copy.
- d) Horizontal communication or vertical communication
Ans. Communication may flow in different directions according to the structure and needs of the organization. The formal communication usually follows the channels of formal relationships of authority and responsibility. On the basis of its direction of flow, formal communication may be classified as Vertical and Horizontal.
(1) Vertical Communication: In an organization, vertical communication is communication between those who are on different levels of authority within the company. There are two types of vertical communication:
(a) Downward Communication
(b) Upward Communication
(2) Horizontal Communication: This type of communication flows laterally along horizontal lines or channels, between managers and executives on the same level of the organization. It helps the managers to co-ordinate their activities and handle matters without referring all matters to the superiors. This speeds up action and at the same time relieves the superiors of unnecessary workload.
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