IGNOU-MCO-01 Organization Theory and Behaviour Free Solved Assignment
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IGNOU-MCO-01 Organization Theory and Behaviour Free Solved Assignment
ASSIGNMENT REFERENCE MATERIAL (2017-18) FREE
Organization Theory and Behaviour
Attempt all the questions
Q1. Explain modern principles of Organization with examples.
Ans. The following five principles of organization are guidelines for planning an efficient organization:
- Unity of Objectives: An enterprise strives to accomplish certain objectives. The organization and every part of it should be directed towards the attainment of objectives. Every member of the organization should be familiar with its goals and objectives. There must be unity of objective so that all efforts can be concentrated on the set goals. The principle requires objectives to be clearly formulated and well-understood.
- Division of Work and Specialization: The entire work in the organization should be divided into various parts so that every individual is confined to the performance of a single job. This facilitates specialization which in turn leads to efficiency and quality. However, each area of specialization must be interrelated to the total integrated system by means of co-ordination of all activities of all departments.
- Unity of Command: No one in the organization should report to more than one line supervisor. Everyone in the organization should know to whom he reports and who reports to him. Stated simply, everyone should have only one boss. Receiving directions from several supervisors may result in confusion, chaos, conflicts, and lack of action.
- Principle of Balance: There should be proper balance between various parts of the organization and no function should be given undue importance at the cost of others. Balance should be maintained also between centralization and decentralization, span of supervision and lines of communication, and authority allocated to department and personnel at various levels.
- Continuity: Change is the law of nature. Many changes take place outside the organization. These changes must be reflected in the organization. For this purpose the form of organization structure must be able to serve the enterprise to attain its objective for a long period of time.
Q2. “Individual’s behavior is determined to a large extent by the way environment is perceived by him/her”. Comment upon the statement and give examples to support your view.
Ans. Perception is more than the sum of all the sensory input supplied by our sense organs. Process of perception helps us to select, organize, and interpret sensory input to achieve a meaningful grasp of our surroundings. Perception yield final products that differ from raw, unprocessed sensations in important ways.
Robbins defines perception as a process which people organize and interpret their expressions arising from the sense organs in order to give the feedback to the environment around. Many others have also defined perception which concludes the fact that functions of the workers are duly affected by three classes of variables the objects or events being perceived, the environment in which perception occurs and the individual can perceive.
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION
We have mainly five sensory organs viz. eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. The basic five sense organs help us to collect information through their respective tasks. Through eyes we see, through ears we listen, through nose we can identify smell, through tongue we take taste, and through skin we touch. Through these sense organs, as an average human being, you collect several thousands of impressions every day. However you pay selective attention to particular information collected by your sense organs. Let us have four situations.
Situation-one: Remember one orchestra programme you had visited recently. You were listening attentively a favourite song of yours, and each word and tune was audible to you. Suddenly you listened your name pronounced through a familiar voice coming from backside. Lo! There was your fast friend, with whom you are meeting after a gap of few years. You joined him and both of you got lost in intimate nostalgic talk. The song of the orchestra was still on, but you were not listening! What happened? You were listening selectively. In first instance you were listening to the song, and in the second instance, you were listening the words of your friend.
Situation-two: Remember when you were in the mid of your teen age, when most of you were interested in watching clouded sky. Do you remember, you used to perceive a particular shape (like, a football player, an elephant, map of a country or a state etc.) in the cloud, but your friend had witnessed some other shape?
Situation-three: Remember, one crucial football/cricket match you were playing sometime back. There was a garden close to playground. Do you remember, you could realize aggressive smell of manure in the garden only when the match was over, but not during the tense moment of the match?
Situation-four: Remember, some years back you had developed some misunderstanding with one of your close friends. Earlier you had completely confided in him, but no more thereafter. You saw him talking with your friend. You thought he was talking ill about you to your friend. Later on you found it was not so.
Misuses of Perception
- Perception can provide false interpretations of sensory information. Incorrect perceptions are called illusions. Illusions may take place in two ways: due to physical processes, (e.g. mirages), and due to cognitive processes.
- Illusions through cognitive processes fall in two categories: illusions of size, and illusions of shape or area.
The model can be understood through input-throughput-output approach. The model of process of perception describes four stages:
Stage 1: It describes perceptual inputs. Perceptual inputs encompass all stimuli that exist in our environment including information, objects, events, people, etc. The perceiver receives these inputs.
Stage 2: It describes perceptual mechanisms or throughputs. This is the transformation of perceptual inputs to outputs. It involves the three processes of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the stimuli that are in the environment. Though all individuals go through the same three steps, while transforming the perceptual inputs to outputs, they differ in how do they select, organize and interpret stimuli based on their own personality predispositions and biases.
Fig. 6.1: A Model of Process of Perception
Stage 3: Perceptual outputs are derived through the processing of perceptual throughputs. These include one’s attitudes, opinions, feelings, values, and actions. Perceptual errors may adversely affect the outputs. Hence, managers should enhance their perceptual skills.
Stage 4: Behaviour is a resultant factor. The perceiver’s behaviour, in turn, generates responses and these reactions give rise to a new set of inputs.
Q3. Why is job design important in an organization? Discuss various models of job design that influence the process of job design.
Ans:- 1. Organizational Design:- The job design specifies the contents and procedures of performing the task in the organization. Hence, it helps in designing organizational structure. The organizational structure is determined by the job design process. It plays a key role in assessing the need and requirement of organizational structure. Job design also specifies organizational culture, norms and values that its members need to follow to achieve organizational goals.
- Structure Of Competent Employee:- Job design is a systematic approach of providing job-related data and information on skills, knowledge and ability of the incumbent to perform the task. On the basis of the information provided by it, the job description and job specification schedule are prepared, which helps to the best suited candidate for the job. It provides a milestone to select the competent employee who is capable of performing the task well in the organization.
- Motivation And Commitment Of Employees:- Job design makes the work more interesting and challenging, which motivates the employees for higher level of performance. The challenging and interesting job provides better pay for the employees which inspires them for better job performance. Along with motivation job design also brings high degree of commitment in them towards organizational objectives. This helps to increase organizational productivity and employee satisfaction at work.
Job design is a continuous process. It aims at increasing the harmony between human effort and job. A number of factors influence the process of job design. Several models are developed to explain the influence of these factors.
- Task Characteristics theory: This theory was the outcome of the studies conducted by Turner and Lawrence. In these studies, an assessment was made about the effect of different kinds of jobs on employee satisfaction and absenteeism. The task characteristics were identified and scores were given. Higher scores on the characteristics indicate that the jobs are more complex and vice versa. The major findings of the theory reflect that employees prefer complex and challenging tasks. The challenging jobs provide more satisfaction. The result is lower absenteeism rate. In the process, the theory identified certain task characteristics. They are: variety, autonomy, responsibility, knowledge and skill, social interaction and optional social interaction.
- Social Information Processing model is an interpersonal communication theory that suggests that online interpersonal relationship development might require more time to develop than traditional face-to-face relationships. Individuals are part of the society. They have inherent desire to associate and belong to others. Obviously, they wish to work in the groups rather than in isolation. Moreover, individuals focus on observational learning. They develop attitudes by social learning. According to the model, employees adopt attitudes and behaviour in response to the social cues provided by work and other groups with which they associate. The groups are co-workers, superiors, subordinates, reference groups, friendship groups, family, and customers. Therefore, information provided by the group on job aspects is more relevant than the basic job characteristics, employees’ psychological states and outcomes of the jobs.
Thus, the managerial strategy of job design is to consider information shared by the groups about the job. They can also influence the employee’s attitude positively even to the poorly designed job by continuously counselling them about the jobs.
Q4. Discuss the nature and types of conflict that can occur in an Organization. As a manager, how would you manage conflict in your Organization?
Ans. Conflicts often occurs when group interact in organization. In its simplest form, conflict is disagreement among parties. When people, group or organizations disagree over significant issues, conflict may arise. Conflicts occurs when a person or group believes its attempts to achieve its goals are being blocked by another person or group. Conflict is disagreement in a social situation over issues of substance or whenever interpersonal emotions create frictions between individuals or groups. Issues of substance essentially mean any fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment.
Fig. 14.1: Conflict Cycle
To gain a perspective on what differentiates a functional conflict from a dysfunctional one, we need to understand the type of conflict. In organization, there are three types of conflicts:
- Task Conflict
- Relationship Conflict
- Process Conflict
Task Conflict relates to the content and goals of the work; relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships and process conflict relates to how does the work get done.
Research shows that relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. The dysfunctionality is because the friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in the relationship conflicts which increase ego clashes and decrease mutual understanding, thereby, blocking the completion of jobs. The functionality of low levels of process conflict come about when task roles are clear and adequate time to complete the task is given; a low-to-moderate level of task conflict consistently demonstrates a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion of ideas that help group perform better.
Table 14.1: Types of Conflict
Let us simulate the situations under which the conflicts occur in an organisation. Basically there could be three situations in an organisational context.
- Conflict with the boss.
- Conflict with colleagues/peers.
- Conflict with subordinates
- Managing conflict with the boss :
All of us have read the famous rule,
Rule no. 1 Boss is always right.
Rule no. 2 In case the boss is wrong see rule no. 1.
This is not to say that one has to be yes man all the time. When ever you face a conflict situation with your boss consider the following approaches.
(i) Appreciate wider perspective : The boss has wider perspective than you, therefore please consider whether there is
something you are not able to visualise that your boss has visualised?
(ii) Do not offend his authority : Every boss is sensitive to maintaining his authority. If you have a better idea, put it in a manner of suggestion, avoid offending his authority.
(iii) Evaluate the impact : Very carefully evaluate the impact of the wrong decision of the boss on your position in particular and on organisation in general. Do not challenge his decision unless you have to.
(iv) Avoid bitterness : If you have to differ with your boss, just register your point of view without making it bitter.
- Managing conflict with peers/colleagues :
Most of the times the conflict between peers occurs because of the tendency of ” One up manship”. When ever you face a conflict situation with your colleagues, try some of the following approaches.
(i) Communicate: Most of the time your colleagues may be differing with you, either because they have not understood your point of view properly or you have not communicated clearly enough. Since you do not have any authority over them, enter into a dialogue and discuss the issue with an open mind.
(ii) Conflict to Co-operation : Work towards skillfully converting conflict in to a co-operation. Strive to appreciate their point of view. Find out the ways and means to create a ‘win-win’ situation. If need be ammend your approach and meet your colleagues midway.
- Managing conflicts with the subordinates :
In this situation you have the authority, yet you have to be skillful in managing the conflict.
(i) Allow freedom to express : Give adequate freedom to your subordinates to express their views freely, be patient listen to them carefully.
(ii) Allow dissent : Dissent is natural, manage disagreement constructively
(iii) Build consensus : Identify the +ve minded persons in your team and convert them into the ‘champions of causes’ and let them reason it out with the ynical fellows. Provide right kind of support, intervene skillfully to build consensus.
Q5. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Dimensions of Organizational Climate
Ans. Organizational climate is a set of characteristics and factors that are perceived by the employees about their organizations.
Litwin and Stringer have proposed seven dimensions of organizational climate: conformity, responsibility, standards, rewards, organizational clarity, warmth, and support, and leadership. They have also emphasized motivational framework of organizational climate. Motivational framework of climate includes motives of:
- Achievement: concern for excellence;
- Expert Influence: concern for making impact on others;
- Control: concern for power and orderliness;
- Extension: concern for others, and for macro issues;
- Dependency: concern for being in close touch with others in a significant way;
- Affiliation: concern for building and maintaining close personal relationships.
On the basis of review of various studies and discussions with managers, Pareek has identified twelve processes of organizational climate:
- Orientation: Priority of members may range between concern to adhere to established rules, to concern for excellence and achievement.
- Interpersonal Relationships: Depending on the pattern of relationship it may lead to climate of clique formation, or climate of control, or a climate of dependency, etc.
- Supervision: Depending on supervisory style, the climate may be of extension or it may be of affiliation, or even learn to manage alienation.
- Problems: Problems may be taken as an opportunity or irritants; manager may solve problems alone or jointly by the superior and the subordinates.
- Management of Mistakes: Attitudes towards mistakes may be of tolerance or of annoyance; such attitudes contribute to organizational climate.
- Conflict Management: Conflict may be perceived as opportunity or as threat; such perceptions influence organizational climate.
(b) Organizational Development
Ans. Organizational Development works as important mechanism that helps in impressing the organization and its employee through planned and established system. It concentrates on people dimensions like norms, values, attitudes, relationships, organizational culture, etc. The strategies of Organizational Development focus on enhancement of organization effectiveness and solving organizational problems. It includes structural and technological changes and focuses on working relationships of employees with the organization. Organizational Development is the modern approach to management of change for human resources development.
The characteristics of Organizational Development (OD) are as follows:
- Organizational Development is an educational strategy that attempts to bring about a planned change.
- Organizational Development relates to real organizational problems instead of hypothetical cases.
- Organizational Development uses sensitivity training methods and lay emphasis on the significance of experiment based training.
- Its change agents are almost external consultants outside of the organization.
- The external change agents and internal organization executives establish a collaborative relationship that involves mutual trust, influence and jointly determined goals.
- The external change agents are humanists and seek to establish a social and altruistic philosophy within an organization.
- The goals that the change agent seeks to achieve through OD tend to reflect human approach and aims for better conflict resolution, increased understanding and more considerable leadership.
(c) Team Building
Ans. Team building is a conscious effort to develop effective work groups throughout an organization. The process of team building aims at enhancing the effectiveness of a team. Pareek Udai has suggested following approaches for team building:
- Johari Window Approach: This approach aims at helping members to express their feelings, opinions reactions and accept feedback from team members. This enhances their sensitivity towards the team members.
- Role Negotiation Approach: This approach focuses on understanding the expectations of the team members and accommodating their behaviour according to the expectations. This enhances the collaborative effort of the team members.
- Team Roles Approach: This approach advocates that there are certain roles which each team members are expected to perform. Belbin has identified eight roles. They are: Chairman/coordinator, shaper, plant, monitor/evaluator, company worker, resource investigator, team worker and completer/finisher. Smooth performance of these roles brings harmony in the effort of the team members.
- Behaviour Modification Approach: This approach focuses on examining member’s behaviour towards the team. The individual member evaluates his/her own behaviour and finds out the most suitable behaviour. Now he/she adopts the most suitable behaviour for the performance of the team.
- Simulation Approach: In this approach an artificial team is formed where members interact, discuss, deliberate and learn from other member’s behaviour. In this situation, the team members learn the most effective way of dealing with the challenges and meet the requirements and the expectations of the team members.
(d) Personality Type
Ans:- Personality traits provide an understanding of the personality types. Certain personality types identified are described below :
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:- This is called MBTI framework. Sixteen personality types are identified with the help of answers to 100 questions provided in the test. Some of them are Extroverted vs. introverted, sensing vs. intuitive, thinking vs. feeling, and perceiving vs. judging, etc. Qualities of a personality type ‘introverted, intuitive, thinking and judging’ possess certain qualities. They are:
- Possess vision,
- Thinks with original mind,
- Have original ideas,
- Have great drive, and
- Skeptical, critical, independent, determined, sometimes stubborn.
Big Five Personality Types
Personality dimension is identified in terms of the big five factors. The types of personality are:
- Extraversion: Giving importance to relationships.
- Agreeableness: Thinking in a different manner.
- Conscientiousness: Possession of reliability.
- Emotional Stability: Ability to withstand stress.
- Openness to Experience: Interested and fascinated by novelty.
Physiognomy Personality Types
William Sheldon has propounded three types of personality based on the human anatomical or physical structure of persons and psychological characteristics. Physical size of the body influences the human behaviour and temperaments. The personality types are:
- Endomorph: Certain characteristics of personality and behaviour associated with the body type are friendly, concern to people, helping others in troubles, very slow reaction to stimuli. They seek comfort; have strong inclination to delicious food, etc. The persons who posses these personality characteristics, are liked by all.
- Mesomorph: Persons having moderate physical characteristics are known as Mesomorph. The body is strong and tough. Some of the personality characteristics of this type are: seeks physical adventure, enjoys body building, feels restless, shows high aggression and self assertiveness, likes to take risk and develops competitive spirit. The person is liked by virtue of his physique.
- Ectomorph: Ectomorph body type is characterized by a thin and flat chest. The person is intelligent, feels shy and avoids social contacts. However, he is typically anxious, ambitious, and dedicated to his work. He is quick to react and hypersensitive to pain and pleasure.